How did the distinctive proteins on gametes differ in each species?

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Curiosity Science Biology and Medicine How did the distinctive proteins on gametes differ in each species?

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  • If all the species that use sexual reproduction evolved from the same root, how did the distinctive proteins on gametes differ in each species?

    Biological fact: Eggs can recognize the proteins on sperms and they allow only the sperms of its own species to penetrate in. For example, a human egg wouldn’t let in a monkey sperm for fertilization. All species have special proteins on their sperms that are exclusive to them so that their sperms can be recognized by the eggs of the same species. Moreover, the eggs of many species attract the sperms of the same species by using secretion, sperms would have had trouble finding the eggs of its species if it wasn’t so.

    Question: If all the species that use sexual reproduction evolved from the same root, how did these distinctive proteins differ in each species? The differentiation of the proteins of sperms must exactly coincide with the evolution of proteins on eggs in a way that recognizes the new sperm proteins, and this would be a mathematical miracle. The thing we are mentioning is similar to dropping our key accidentally and having it twisted, and finding our lock twisted as well in a way that matches perfectly with the new shape of our key when we go home. This coincidence must have happened for every sexually-reproducing species, and this means that miracles as many as the number of sexually-reproducing species must have taken place. Am I missing something in this way of thinking? How can you explain sexual reproduction with evolution? Thanks…

    – Question by Doganay via the Ask a science question page.

  • Speciation is what you are looking for. The idea is that both the lock and key in your analogy gets shaped over time through the processes associated with evolution.

    If a sperm from a different species (example – lion) fertilizes the egg of another species (example – tiger), it may form an offspring (liger). But there is no guarantee that it could create offsprings if it were to be bred within the liger population. But over time, with evolution and natural adaptation, the species can either attain their fitness or go extinct.

    But naturally, speciation occurs when a population of a species gets separated and a genetic drift occurs. For example, if they get separated geographically when they are in isolation, the population could develop traits and variations in their genetic structure over generations. And through natural selection, they diverge into an entirely new species. This is known as allotropic speciation.

    This could happen even without isolation too. They are called sympatric speciation and they happen due to various factor causing a genetic drift within a population.

    When you take the time into account, the diversity in species would make sense in the evolutionary sense.


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